2021-01-01 | 民族之窗 | 阅读量: | 收藏此文
摘要: 周传斌 马文奎 保安族概览 A Brief Introduction 保安族因其先民最初居住于青海省同仁县境内的保安城一带而得名，现主要聚居在甘肃省临夏回族自治州境内的积石山保安族东乡族撒拉族自治县，在该州其他县市及青海省部分县市也有少量分布。2010年全国第六次人口普查数据
保安族概览 A Brief Introduction
保安族 因其先民最初居住于青海省同仁县境内的保安城一带而得名，现主要聚居在甘肃省临夏回族自治州境内的积石山保安族东乡族撒拉族自治县，在该州其他县市及青海省部分县市也有少量分布。2010年全国第六次人口普查数据显示，保安族人口为20 074人，是我国人口较少的民族之一，也是甘肃省特有的少数民族之一。
The Baoan people, whose ethnic name was derived from their original residence Baoan town located in Tongren County of Qinghai Province, is now concentrated in Jishishan Baoan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture , Gansu province, with a small number distributed) in other regions of Gansu and Qinghai provinces. According to the 2010 census of China, the Baoan has a population of 20,074, which is among the smallest ethnic groups of China, and is a special ethnic group in Gansu province.
A Complicated and Whirling History
There have been three versions of the ethnic origin of Baoan people: originating from Mongolia, from Sermu people of the Yuan dynasty, or from Hui people. The latest molecular biological studies appear to support the second version.
At the early 13th century, the great Genghis Khan and his sons conquered the Muslim world of central and west Asia. A great number of Tammaci Armies from the West Regions, and also craftsmen, merchants and artists were forced to migrate into China. These peoples were together called the Sermus (Colored Eyes), which include a great number of Muslims. During Yuan dynasty, some Sermu soldiers, craftsmen and their families settled down along the Longwu River of east Qinghai.
During the reign of Emperor Hongwu of Ming dynasty (1368-1398), a military post named Baoan Zhan or Baoan Fort was set up in Tongren region of east Qinghai. Then under the rule of Emperor Wanli (1573-1620), the city wall of Baoan Fort was built and the Baoan Garrison was established. Its mission was to manage the twelve ethnic clans of that region. At that time, the descendants of the Sermus of Yuan dynasty, due to a long process of interactions with native Mongolian, Tibetan, Hui, Tu and Han people, gradually formed a new ethnic group called the Baoan people.
Since the early 17th century, a multi-ethnic society had come into being in Tongren region. The Baoan Muslim was distributed in nine villages along the Longwu River. There were five villages, i.e. Tiecheng Shan, Baoan Fort, Grand Saltar Village, Tiejiang Cheng of Wutun, and Balachihai of Jianga Tan on the east bank; and Nianduhu, Guomari, Little Saltar and Qiongwu Laka on the west bank. Some historical remains of Baoan Muslims have survived until today in that region.
One of the most important historical events of Baoan Muslims was their migration in late Qing dynasty (1860s). As their population gradually increased, many disputes over irrigation water occurred between Baoan Muslims and the Buddhist clans. In the middle 18th century, Muslim rebellions broke out all around the northwest China that also had an impact on Baoan people. In the spring of 1864, a dispute over irrigation water was finally developed into a fight with weapons. The Baoan Muslims were thus forced to leave their land. In September, 1864 on the lunar calendar, under the protection of the Tibetan Rangja tribe, Baoan people fled to Xunhua, a neighboring land of Salar Muslims.
In 1868, the government forces moved into Xunhua region to suppress the Muslim rebels. Unfortunately, a severe drought happened this year. The Baoan people had no choice but to migrate again. The entire clan of Baoan Muslims moved toward east and settled down finally in six villages of Gansu Province: Ganhetan, Meipo, Dadun, Gaozhaojia, Lijia and Xietao. After that, the Baoan population was spread into more than 20 villages until today.
On March 25, 1952, the central government of the People’s Republic of China identified the Baoan people as one of the official ethnic minorities (Minzu). On the next day, a Baoan Autonomous Township was setup, which administered 18 villages including Dadun, Meipo, Ganhetan, Yatou, Gaozhaolijia, etc. On April 2, 1954, Dahejia Hui, Baoan, Salar and Tu United Autonomous Region came into being. Then on September 1956, it was replaced with the Dahejia Baoan Autonomous Township. In June 1980, the State Council granted to the establishment of the Jishishan Baoan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County. On September 30, 1981, a celebration assembly was held at Chuimatan, the county seat. At present, the Jishishan County administers 13 townships, 4 towns, 48,049 households, 263.6 thousand people (2014 census). Baoan is one of the 10 ethnic groups living in this area. It has 18 thousand people, amounting to 6.82% of Jishishan County’s total population.
Styles of Living Led by the Traditional Craft of Dagger-making
生计方式的特点STYLES OF LIVING
As they emerged from a transition zone between the farming region and the pastoral region, and historically migrated several times, the livelihood of the Baoan people became multi and diverse. Although they might seek a livelihood through farming, pasturage, commerce and handicraft, the most famous ethnic craft of Baoan Muslim has been the making of the Baoan Daggers.
The forefathers of Baoan people at Tongren from Yuan to Ming dynasty were both farmers and soldiers, who made a living mainly from irrigation farming. After moving to Jishishan region, the people had been still engaged in agriculture, mainly cultivating wheat, highland barley, corn, potato, rape, pepper and benne.
In addition, they might also breed cattle and sheep. And commerce has been an important occupation, too. Before 1949, there were many Baoan international businessmen who had been to India or Japan.
In the Baoan language, a person making metal instruments was called a “Guar”, which can be traced back to the Yuan dynasty. According to historical records, a great number of craftsmen including the forefathers of Baoan Muslims were driven into and worked for the Mongolian army. After the migration in 1860s, most of the Baoan people lost their livelihood. The destitute farmers had to learn blacksmithing to survive. The Baoan “Guar” refers to dagger maker, utensil maker, lock and key maker, scissors maker, coppersmith and silversmith, etc. The dagger maker is famous for their making of the Baoan Daggers.
闻名遐迩的保安腰刀THE WELL-KNOWN BAOAN DAGGERS
Today, the Baoan Daggers have become a cultural symbol of Baoan people. The dagger maker is called “Duhuyesjun” in Baoan language. The daggers come in many kinds, each with a special name, such as Shiyangjin, Boriji, Yawuqi, Yuanyang Doubles, Mother-son Doubles, Oblate-scabbard, Abacus-hilt, Fish Dagger, Horse-head Dagger, Watermelon-head Dagger, Gangou Dagger, etc. They are very beautiful and very sharp too! The production process can be divided into dozens of stages, of which the two most important are adding steel into iron and touching water after smelting the iron. The best skill leads to the best dagger.
In 2006, the traditional skill of smith-forging the Baoan Daggers was listed into the first batch of the National Intangible Cultural Heritages of China. Mr. Ye Gubai (1932-2009) and Ma Weixiong (1950-) were designated as inheritors of this ethnic heritage.
Unique and Special Ethnic Folklore
The Baoan people believe in Islam. Their everyday life, including dress, food, dwelling, marriage, funeral, and social organizations, is heavily influenced by Islam.
The costumes of the Baoan people would to be loose and well-dressed. There is a common saying that summarizes the dress customs and features: “Leather clothing for winter, and robes for autumn; embroidered shirts, with vest long or short”. The most distinguished parts of the Baoan dressing are robes and headwears. Due to the geographic reasons, the traditional way of dressing of the Baoan people was influenced by their Mongolian and Tibetan neighbors. The male overcoats were fur-lined jacket and a kind of robe called Roula, with red or green waistbands made by silk, leather or cloth. The traditional female dresses include overalls, cheongsams and robes with their favorite colors like red or green. The female headwear for girl is called Chuchu hat, which is embellished with cloth-made peony and two silk tassels; and for married women is Mina, a kind of embroidered scarf. Today, the Baoan dressing is very similar to their Muslim neighbors like the Hui people.
The Baoan people like cooked wheaten food, beef and mutton. They also like to drink tea, milk and yogurt.
The dwellings of Baoan people are mostly houses made of bricks and woods. Their architecture forms include half-roofed building, whole-roofed building and quadrangles. They never use animal or human figures to decorate their rooms.
In Baoan villages, besides the basic-level government, there are other social organizations like the Democratic Mosque Management Committee and lineage groups called Jiawu. The Democratic Mosque Management Committee is in charge of the running of a mosque, whose members are elected by the whole Jamaat membership. The Jiawu is a loose blood-based group of male kinship which can be traced back to a common ancestor.
The Baoan people are used to maintaining an ethnic-religious endogamy due to the Islamic law. A traditional marriage would always need the permission of the parents, a matchmaker and the bride-price. The day before a wedding, the bridegroom should recite an extract from the Quran and pray before the ancestral graves. A wedding will last for three days, including in succession Ga Yanxi, Chi Chongxi and Hui Men.
“Ga Yanxi”, which literarily means “little banquet”, is actually a wedding ceremony. The bridegroom will go to the bride’s home with groomsmen and say Salam to elderships of the bride. His father-in-law will declare that his daughter is betrothed and the bride must say “I accept her”. After the religious ritual of the wedding, the Imam will throw walnuts and red dates to the crowd. Then the bride will be taken to her husband’s family. Relatives and friends will make fun of the parents of the husband. Nowadays, only male guests are entertained at the banquet.
On the next day, another banquet will entertain the females, which is called “Chi Chongxi”.
“Hui Men” means “back home”. The new couple will go to the bride’s family with gifts. And the two families will meet at the bridegroom’s home after that.
The funeral custom of the Baoan people is similar to other Muslims, i.e. simple and rapid inhumation. Every year, on the Memorial Day the religious festival as Eid al-Fitr and Eid al -Adha, people will go to the grave, to recite the Quran and pray.
The traditional sports of the Baoan people are usually held in a slack season like winter. Their ethnic sports consist of the following: Da Wuqiang (Five Shootings), Mo Qi (Flag Brandishing on Horseback), She Jian (Arrow Shooting), Duo Yaodao (Dagger Fighting), Shuai Paoga (Cobble Sling), Da Shitou (Beating Stones) and Bao Yao (Wresting), among which the Dagger Fighting is the representative sporting event of the Baoan people.
Besides the traditional Islamic festivals as Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha and Mawlid al-Nabi, the Baoan people also celebrate the Spring Festival and the Mount-excursion Festival. Every May to June on the traditional Chinese calendar, the Baoan people will celebrate the Mount-excursion Festival (Lang Shan Jie). They will take foods and tents, and go to (a) riverside or mountain grasslands for a bivouac.
Rich and Varied Literature and Arts
The Baoan people possess a language without writing. The Baoan language belongs to Mongolian branch of the Altaic Language Family, which has a close relationship with the Mongolian, Daur, Monguor, Dongxiang and eastern Yugur languages. In the Baoan language, there are many loanwords from Chinese, Tibetan, Arabic, Persian and Turkic languages, which can indicate the relation between the Baoan People and other cultures.
The Baoan oral literature, as a crystallization of their ancient wisdom, is ranges from mythology to legends, proverbs and folk songs. Their mythology may have come from the influence of Islam, drawn lessons from the Chinese and Tibetan mythologies, or produced from local contexts. The story of “Shen Ma” (God-horse) is the most famous one. In 1996, Shanghai Animation Film Studio produced a cartoon film based on this story.
作家文学与艺术WRITER LITERATURE AND ARTS
The Baoan writers use Chinese characters to produce works. After 1949, there have been many Baoan writers, artists and researchers growing up, such as Ma Shaoqing, Zhan Xiuyi, Ding Shengzhi, Wang Fuxiang, and Ma Peiting. Wang Fuxiang, a Baoan painter, produced a Chinese painting titled Making Daggers, and won the second prize of the National Exhibition of Peasant Paintings in 1983. Ma Shaoqing’s story The House of Abu, was honored with a special award for the ethnic minority literatures in 1986.
The Hua’er is a kind of folk song popular in Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia Provinces. The Baoan people also like to sing these folk songs. A main melody of the Baoan Hua’er is called “Baoan Ling”, which is similar to the folk songs of the Hui and Salar people. The Baoan Hua’er has not only a bright and tough sound, but also a gentle and lyric flavor, which indicates their ethnic characters of being forthright and passionate. In 2008, Ma Rui, a folk song singer, was appointed as the inheritor of the Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Baoan Oral Literary and Language.
There are several folk song festivals called “Hua’er Hui” in this region, such as in Dashanzhuang Gorge, Gahu Woods, Mengda Tianchi Lake, and Bingling Temple. On each festival, you may find lots of Baoan people. Every year from lunar May 5 to 8 on the Chinese calendar, the masses from various ethnic groups will gather at Gaixinping and Dashanzhuang Gorge of the Jishishan County for the annually folk song festival.
Harmony in the Diversity of Religious Culture
Since the Baoan people are Muslim, with Mosques built in every village, they may share their mosques with their Muslim neighbors like Hui, Dongxiang and Salar people.
“海乙寺”制度THE HAYY MOSQUE
Around the Dahejia Town, there is still a religious system that a central Mosque called “Hayy Mosque” will command other 42 attached mosques. The Imams of the attached mosques need to be appointed or approved by the central mosque. Although the Baoan and other Muslims belong to different sects and the Sufi orders of Islam, they hold the Friday prayer and annual festivals in the same central mosque.
There are two Sufi orders founded in this region: the Aitou Tariq and the Gaozhaojia Tariq. Most of the Baoan people are followers of these two Sufi orders, with a few exceptions.
The Aitou Tariq got its name from the Aitou village of Liuji Township, Jishishan County. The Baoan people of Dadun village were mostly followers of this Sufi order. The mausoleum of a Sufi master was built in this village.
The Gaozhaojia Tariq, which got its name from its seat of Gaozhaojia village, is the only Islamic sect founded by a Baoan Muslim. The mausoleum of Gaozhaojia Tariq rebuilt in recent years has already become a distinguished religious architecture and sacred site of the region. Every year on March 20 and October 18 of the Chinese lunar calendar, great religious ceremonies will be celebrated here.
The traditional Islamic festivals include Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and Mawlid al-Nabi. Whenever an Islamic festival or religious anniversary comes, grand and magnificent rituals will be held at the Sufi mausoleum of Aitou and Gaozhaojia village. People will recite the Quran, read poems praising the Prophet Mohammad, and have a dinner party at last. On these days, all the Baoan people will come, whether male or female, elder or youth. A spectacular atmosphere will be felt by every one.
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