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保安族

来源:西北少数民族研究中心 | 日期:2017/4/26 21:20:56 | 阅读量:


保安族概览
A Brief Introduction


周传斌 马文奎

保安族 因其先民最初居住于青海省同仁县境内的保安城一带而得名,现主要聚居在甘肃省临夏回族自治州境内的积石山保安族东乡族撒拉族自治县,在该州其他县市及青海省部分县市也有少量分布。2010年全国第六次人口普查数据显示,保安族人口为20 074人,是我国人口较少的民族之一,也是甘肃省特有的少数民族之一。
The Baoan people, whose ethnic name was derived from their original residence Baoan town located in Tongren County of Qinghai Province, is now concentrated in Jishishan Baoan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County of Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture , Gansu province, with a small number distributed) in other regions of Gansu and Qinghai provinces. According to the 2010 census of China, the Baoan has a population of 20,074, which is among the smallest ethnic groups of China, and is a special ethnic group in Gansu province.


扑朔迷离的民族历史

A Complicated and Whirling History


族源与族称ETHNIC ORIGIN


关于保安族起源有三种说法:蒙古为主说、色目人为主说、回族为主说。最新的分子生物学研究支持色目人为主说。

There have been three versions of the ethnic origin of Baoan people: originating from Mongolia, from Sermu people of the Yuan dynasty, or from Hui people. The latest molecular biological studies appear to support the second version.

13世纪初,成吉思汗及其诸子多次西征,征服信仰伊斯兰教的中亚、西亚地区。大批西域各族穆斯林被编入“探马赤军”,连同大批工匠、商人、艺人等进入中国,被统称为“色目人”。元代,一批色目人军队、工匠及其家属驻扎青海隆务河畔。

At the early 13th century, the great Genghis Khan and his sons conquered the Muslim world of central and west Asia. A great number of Tammaci Armies from the West Regions, and also craftsmen, merchants and artists were forced to migrate into China. These peoples were together called the Sermus (Colored Eyes), which include a great number of Muslims. During Yuan dynasty, some Sermu soldiers, craftsmen and their families settled down along the Longwu River of east Qinghai.

明初洪武年间(1368—1398),明廷在青海同仁地区设立保安站、保安堡。万历年间(1573—1620),修筑了隶属河州卫的保安城,设保安营,置都指挥,管理“同仁十二族”。元代落居此地的色目人后裔与蒙古、藏、回、土、汉等民族长期交往、相互吸纳,逐渐形成了一个新的民族,自称“保安人”。

During the reign of Emperor Hongwu of Ming dynasty (1368-1398), a military post named Baoan Zhan or Baoan Fort was set up in Tongren region of east Qinghai. Then under the rule of Emperor Wanli (1573-1620), the city wall of Baoan Fort was built and the Baoan Garrison was established. Its mission was to manage the twelve ethnic clans of that region. At that time, the descendants of the Sermus of Yuan dynasty, due to a long process of interactions with native Mongolian, Tibetan, Hui, Tu and Han people, gradually formed a new ethnic group called the Baoan people.

明末清初以来,同仁地区形成了多民族杂居的局面。信仰伊斯兰教的保安人分布在隆务河畔的9个村庄,包括隆务河东岸的铁城山、保安堡、撒尔塔大庄、吴屯铁匠城、涧嘎滩上的巴喇赤亥,以及隆务河西岸的年都乎、郭麻日、尕撒尔和黄乃亥琼吾拉卡。这里至今仍保存有一些保安人生活的遗迹。清代《循化志》记载,雍正年间保安堡旧城“蕃回杂处”,正是当时多民族杂居状况的一个缩影。

Since the early 17th century, a multi-ethnic society had come into being in Tongren region. The Baoan Muslim was distributed in nine villages along the Longwu River. There were five villages, i.e. Tiecheng Shan, Baoan Fort, Grand Saltar Village, Tiejiang Cheng of Wutun, and Balachihai of Jianga Tan on the east bank; and Nianduhu, Guomari, Little Saltar and Qiongwu Laka on the west bank. Some historical remains of Baoan Muslims have survived until today in that region.


民族迁徙THE MIGRATION


保安族历史上最重大的事件之一是发生于清末的民族大迁徙。随着人口的增加,隆务河畔杂居的各族之间,因为争夺灌溉水源而时有争执。清末咸同年间,西北各地爆发了回民起义,也影响到保安人。同治三年(1864年),保安人与他族居民之间发生“春水之争”,最后发展到了武装械斗,保安人被迫选择迁徙。当年农历九月,保安人在藏族郎家部落的帮助下逃往循化的撒拉族聚居地区。

One of the most important historical events of Baoan Muslims was their migration in late Qing dynasty (1860s). As their population gradually increased, many disputes over irrigation water occurred between Baoan Muslims and the Buddhist clans. In the middle 18th century, Muslim rebellions broke out all around the northwest China that also had an impact on Baoan people. In the spring of 1864, a dispute over irrigation water was finally developed into a fight with weapons. The Baoan Muslims were thus forced to leave their land. In September, 1864 on the lunar calendar, under the protection of the Tibetan Rangja tribe, Baoan people fled to Xunhua, a neighboring land of Salar Muslims.

同治七年(1868年),清军进剿西北回民起义进入青海循化地区,加之当地遭受严重旱灾,保安人遂决定举族东迁,进入今甘肃省临夏回族自治州境内,最初定居在甘河滩、梅坡、大墩、高赵家、李家、斜套6个村庄。后来,保安族人口又扩散到20多个聚居或杂居的自然村,形成了今天的民族分布格局。

In 1868, the government forces moved into Xunhua region to suppress the Muslim rebels. Unfortunately, a severe drought happened this year. The Baoan people had no choice but to migrate again. The entire clan of Baoan Muslims moved toward east and settled down finally in six villages of Gansu Province: Ganhetan, Meipo, Dadun, Gaozhaojia, Lijia and Xietao. After that, the Baoan population was spread into more than 20 villages until today.


实现民族区域自治REGIONAL AUTONOMY


1952年3月25日,中华人民共和国政务院正式认定保安族为一个单独的民族。3月26日,在现在的积石山县境内成立了保安族自治乡,辖大墩、梅坡、甘河滩、崖头、高赵李家等18个自然村。1954年4月2日,成立大河家回族保安族撒拉族土族联合自治区。1956年9月,改设大河家保安族自治乡。1980年6月,国务院批准成立积石山保安族东乡族撒拉族自治县。1981年9月30日,在县城吹麻滩举行了自治县成立庆祝大会。目前,积石山县辖13个乡、4个镇,48 049户,26.36万人(2014年)。居住着汉、回、保安、东乡、撒拉、土等10个民族。其中,保安族1.8万人,占全县总人口的6.82%。

On March 25, 1952, the central government of the People’s Republic of China identified the Baoan people as one of the official ethnic minorities (Minzu). On the next day, a Baoan Autonomous Township was setup, which administered 18 villages including Dadun, Meipo, Ganhetan, Yatou, Gaozhaolijia, etc. On April 2, 1954, Dahejia Hui, Baoan, Salar and Tu United Autonomous Region came into being. Then on September 1956, it was replaced with the Dahejia Baoan Autonomous Township. In June 1980, the State Council granted to the establishment of the Jishishan Baoan, Dongxiang and Salar Autonomous County. On September 30, 1981, a celebration assembly was held at Chuimatan, the county seat. At present, the Jishishan County administers 13 townships, 4 towns, 48,049 households, 263.6 thousand people (2014 census). Baoan is one of the 10 ethnic groups living in this area. It has 18 thousand people, amounting to 6.82% of Jishishan County’s total population.


传统锻造技艺引领的生计方式

Styles of Living Led by the Traditional Craft of Dagger-making


生计方式的特点STYLES OF LIVING


保安族形成于农牧结合地带,加之历史上曾不断迁徙,因此其生计方式多样,农业、牧业、商业、手工业等多种经济互补,尤以打造保安腰刀的手工技艺最为著名。

As they emerged from a transition zone between the farming region and the pastoral region, and historically migrated several times, the livelihood of the Baoan people became multi and diverse. Although they might seek a livelihood through farming, pasturage, commerce and handicraft, the most famous ethnic craft of Baoan Muslim has been the making of the Baoan Daggers.

保安族 先民居住在青海同仁时,其身份亦农亦兵,主要经营灌溉农业。迁徙到积石山地区后,保安族仍大多以从事农业为主,主要种植小麦、青稞、玉米、土豆等粮食作物,以及油菜、花椒、胡麻等经济作物。

The forefathers of Baoan people at Tongren from Yuan to Ming dynasty were both farmers and soldiers, who made a living mainly from irrigation farming. After moving to Jishishan region, the people had been still engaged in agriculture, mainly cultivating wheat, highland barley, corn, potato, rape, pepper and benne.

此外,保安族也养殖牛羊、从事皮毛加工。经商也是保安族的一个主要行业。1949年前,出现了从事国际贸易的商人,如“印度客”“日本客”等。

In addition, they might also breed cattle and sheep. And commerce has been an important occupation, too. Before 1949, there were many Baoan international businessmen who had been to India or Japan.

保安语称打制金属器具的人为“果尔”,其历史可以追溯到元代。历史记载,蒙古西征时曾掳掠大量工匠在军中服役,其中就有保安族的先民。清末的民族大迁徙之后,保安族原有生计方式受到重创,破产农民遂学习打铁技艺并以此为生。保安族“果尔”包括刀子匠、黑活匠、锁子匠、剪子匠、铜匠、银匠等。刀子匠主打保安腰刀,黑活匠主制较粗糙的生产工具,其他几种匠人则制作生活用品、首饰等。

In the Baoan language, a person making metal instruments was called a “Guar”, which can be traced back to the Yuan dynasty. According to historical records, a great number of craftsmen including the forefathers of Baoan Muslims were driven into and worked for the Mongolian army. After the migration in 1860s, most of the Baoan people lost their livelihood. The destitute farmers had to learn blacksmithing to survive. The Baoan “Guar” refers to dagger maker, utensil maker, lock and key maker, scissors maker, coppersmith and silversmith, etc. The dagger maker is famous for their making of the Baoan Daggers.


闻名遐迩的保安腰刀THE WELL-KNOWN BAOAN DAGGERS


如今,保安腰刀已成为保安族的文化名片。刀子匠,保安语中称为“都乎也斯君”。所制作的保安腰刀品种有“什样锦”“波日季”“雅吾其”(满把子)、鸳鸯双刀、子母刀、扁鞘、珠算刀、鱼刀、马头刀、西瓜头、干沟刀等。保安腰刀锋利无比,可削铁为泥,迎风断发。传统的制作工艺多达数十道。其中最关键的两道工序是在锻打刀坯时加钢和炼烧以后的沾水。加钢时,刀坯的正面和反面烧炼时间要相等,一般在1两铁当中炼加1立方厘米的薄钢。沾水则需要把握火候,恰到好处,这样才能保证刀具刚韧相济。

Today, the Baoan Daggers have become a cultural symbol of Baoan people. The dagger maker is called “Duhuyesjun” in Baoan language. The daggers come in many kinds, each with a special name, such as Shiyangjin, Boriji, Yawuqi, Yuanyang Doubles, Mother-son Doubles, Oblate-scabbard, Abacus-hilt, Fish Dagger, Horse-head Dagger, Watermelon-head Dagger, Gangou Dagger, etc. They are very beautiful and very sharp too! The production process can be divided into dozens of stages, of which the two most important are adding steel into iron and touching water after smelting the iron. The best skill leads to the best dagger.

2006年,保安族腰刀锻造技艺列入第一批国家级非物质文化遗产目录。冶古白(1932—2009)、马维雄(1950—)被确定为保安腰刀锻制技艺国家级传承人。

In 2006, the traditional skill of smith-forging the Baoan Daggers was listed into the first batch of the National Intangible Cultural Heritages of China. Mr. Ye Gubai (1932-2009) and Ma Weixiong (1950-) were designated as inheritors of this ethnic heritage.


独具特色的民俗文化

Unique and Special Ethnic Folklore


保安族信仰伊斯兰教,其日常生活中的衣食住行、婚丧嫁娶、社会组织等深受伊斯兰教的影响。

The Baoan people believe in Islam. Their everyday life, including dress, food, dwelling, marriage, funeral, and social organizations, is heavily influenced by Islam.


服饰COSTUMES


保安族服饰讲究宽松、得体。一句“冬日里的皮挂,秋日里的柔拉,绣花的绑身子,长短的夹夹”,概括了保安族传统的穿衣习惯与服饰特色。保安族传统服饰当中最有特色的部分应属长袍与头饰。由于居住地域的关系,传统服饰受蒙古族、藏族的影响较大。男性外套有大襟皮袄、柔拉(大襟袍子)等,腰缠有后缀的红绿色绸缎带、皮带或花布带。女士传统服饰为以红绿色为主的大襟罩衣、大襟旗袍、大襟长衫等,头戴帽子或盖头,如缀有布质牡丹和两条丝穗的女孩头饰“绌绌帽”、已婚妇女的绣花头饰“咪那”等。今天,保安族服饰与回族等已无太大差别。

The costumes of the Baoan people would to be loose and well-dressed. There is a common saying that summarizes the dress customs and features: “Leather clothing for winter, and robes for autumn; embroidered shirts, with vest long or short”. The most distinguished parts of the Baoan dressing are robes and headwears. Due to the geographic reasons, the traditional way of dressing of the Baoan people was influenced by their Mongolian and Tibetan neighbors. The male overcoats were fur-lined jacket and a kind of robe called Roula, with red or green waistbands made by silk, leather or cloth. The traditional female dresses include overalls, cheongsams and robes with their favorite colors like red or green. The female headwear for girl is called Chuchu hat, which is embellished with cloth-made peony and two silk tassels; and for married women is Mina, a kind of embroidered scarf. Today, the Baoan dressing is very similar to their Muslim neighbors like the Hui people.


饮食FOODS


保安族喜食面食和牛羊肉,喜饮茶、牛奶、酸奶等。

The Baoan people like cooked wheaten food, beef and mutton. They also like to drink tea, milk and yogurt.


居住形式DWELLINGS


保安族民居多为土木、砖木结构的房屋,建筑形式分为半边楼、全楼和四合院型。不使用动物和人物图像做装饰图案。

The dwellings of Baoan people are mostly houses made of bricks and woods. Their architecture forms include half-roofed building, whole-roofed building and quadrangles. They never use animal or human figures to decorate their rooms.


“家伍”组织SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONS


现在的保安族村落中,除了村委会外,还有清真寺民主管理委员会和民间宗族“家伍”组织。寺管会负责协调清真寺内部的各项事务,成员由本寺坊村民选举产生。“家伍”是由可追溯共同祖先的男性亲属及其后裔构成的松散血缘组织。

In Baoan villages, besides the basic-level government, there are other social organizations like the Democratic Mosque Management Committee and lineage groups called Jiawu. The Democratic Mosque Management Committee is in charge of the running of a mosque, whose members are elected by the whole Jamaat membership. The Jiawu is a loose blood-based group of male kinship which can be traced back to a common ancestor.


婚姻MARRIAGE


保安族婚姻受伊斯兰教影响较深,多为民族、宗教内婚。传统的保安族婚姻需媒人牵线、父母同意,包括仰媒说亲、下聘礼、举行婚礼等程序。婚礼前一天,新郎一般要上祖坟念“亥厅”(《古兰经》选)、做“杜瓦”(祈祷)。婚礼分三天举行,依次为“尕宴席”“吃重席”“回门”。

The Baoan people are used to maintaining an ethnic-religious endogamy due to the Islamic law. A traditional marriage would always need the permission of the parents, a matchmaker and the bride-price. The day before a wedding, the bridegroom should recite an extract from the Quran and pray before the ancestral graves. A wedding will last for three days, including in succession Ga Yanxi, Chi Chongxi and Hui Men.

“尕宴席”即为举行婚姻仪式。新郎和伴郎等男客到女方家中娶亲,进门向女方各位长辈说“色俩目”。阿訇念“尼卡哈”前,岳父要宣布将女儿许配给新郎,新郎则要回答“我承领”。阿訇将核桃和红枣抛洒给众人后,新娘被送出家门,男方将新娘迎娶到新房。前来贺喜的亲朋,会将公公婆婆等新郎的近亲抓住,往其脸上涂抹锅灰戏谑一番,称为“耍公婆”。当日参加的多为男客。

“Ga Yanxi”, which literarily means “little banquet”, is actually a wedding ceremony. The bridegroom will go to the bride’s home with groomsmen and say Salam to elderships of the bride. His father-in-law will declare that his daughter is betrothed and the bride must say “I accept her”. After the religious ritual of the wedding, the Imam will throw walnuts and red dates to the crowd. Then the bride will be taken to her husband’s family. Relatives and friends will make fun of the parents of the husband. Nowadays, only male guests are entertained at the banquet.

“吃重席”是次日清早,新郎持请柬邀请女方女客们参加宴请。

On the next day, another banquet will entertain the females, which is called “Chi Chongxi”.

“回门”是新娘在新郎的陪伴下带礼品拜见父母以及娘家的家伍长辈,女方亲属负责款待客人。回门结束后,女方父母以及近亲会在第二天拜访男方父母,称为“认亲家”。

“Hui Men” means “back home”. The new couple will go to the bride’s family with gifts. And the two families will meet at the bridegroom’s home after that.


丧葬FUNERAL


保安族丧葬习俗与回族等相同,主张土葬、俭葬、速葬。在亡人去世的纪念日以及开斋节和古尔邦节等宗教节日,会到坟地念经,举行纪念活动。

The funeral custom of the Baoan people is similar to other Muslims, i.e. simple and rapid inhumation. Every year, on the Memorial Day the religious festival as Eid al-Fitr and Eid al -Adha, people will go to the grave, to recite the Quran and pray.


文娱LEISURE


保安族传统体育活动,一般在冬季农闲季节举行,比较有特色的体育项目包括:打五枪、抹旗、射箭、夺腰刀、甩抛尕、打石头、抱腰等。其中,夺腰刀是保安族传统体育的代表项目。

The traditional sports of the Baoan people are usually held in a slack season like winter. Their ethnic sports consist of the following: Da Wuqiang (Five Shootings), Mo Qi (Flag Brandishing on Horseback), She Jian (Arrow Shooting), Duo Yaodao (Dagger Fighting), Shuai Paoga (Cobble Sling), Da Shitou (Beating Stones) and Bao Yao (Wresting), among which the Dagger Fighting is the representative sporting event of the Baoan people.


传统节日FESTIVALS


除伊斯兰教的传统节日开斋节、古尔邦节、圣纪以外,保安族还过春节和浪山节。每年农历五月至六月是保安族人浪山的日子,人们带上食物、帐篷等到黄河边、山溪或草坡上野炊、游乐。

Besides the traditional Islamic festivals as Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha and Mawlid al-Nabi, the Baoan people also celebrate the Spring Festival and the Mount-excursion Festival. Every May to June on the traditional Chinese calendar, the Baoan people will celebrate the Mount-excursion Festival (Lang Shan Jie). They will take foods and tents, and go to (a) riverside or mountain grasslands for a bivouac.


丰富多彩的文学艺术

Rich and Varied Literature and Arts


语言文字LANGUAGE


保安族有语言无文字,保安语属于阿尔泰语系蒙古语族,与蒙古语、达斡尔语、土语、东乡语、东部裕固语有密切的关系。保安语中有不少汉语、藏语、阿拉伯语、波斯语和突厥语的借词,反映了保安族与这些民族文化的关系。

The Baoan people possess a language without writing. The Baoan language belongs to Mongolian branch of the Altaic Language Family, which has a close relationship with the Mongolian, Daur, Monguor, Dongxiang and eastern Yugur languages. In the Baoan language, there are many loanwords from Chinese, Tibetan, Arabic, Persian and Turkic languages, which can indicate the relation between the Baoan People and other cultures.


口头文学ORAL LITERATURE


保安族口头文学包括神话故事、传说、谚语、民间歌谣等,是保安族先民智慧的结晶。保安族神话故事有的受伊斯兰教影响,有的借鉴汉藏族神话,有些则反映当地社会自然状况以及保安族为生活而斗争的精神。保安族神话故事《神马》,就是其中的代表作。1996年,上海美术电影制片厂曾制作了反映保安族文化的动画片《神马与腰刀》。

The Baoan oral literature, as a crystallization of their ancient wisdom, is ranges from mythology to legends, proverbs and folk songs. Their mythology may have come from the influence of Islam, drawn lessons from the Chinese and Tibetan mythologies, or produced from local contexts. The story of “Shen Ma” (God-horse) is the most famous one. In 1996, Shanghai Animation Film Studio produced a cartoon film based on this story.


作家文学与艺术WRITER LITERATURE AND ARTS


保安族作家主要使用汉文写作。新中国成立后,涌现了马少青、绽秀义、丁生智、王福祥、马沛霆等一批保安族文艺爱好者、作家及保安族文化研究者。自学成才的保安族画家王福祥的国画作品《保安刀艺》,曾获1983年全国农民画展二等奖。马少青的小说《艾卜的房子》曾获1986年全国第三届少数民族文学创作特别奖。

The Baoan writers use Chinese characters to produce works. After 1949, there have been many Baoan writers, artists and researchers growing up, such as Ma Shaoqing, Zhan Xiuyi, Ding Shengzhi, Wang Fuxiang, and Ma Peiting. Wang Fuxiang, a Baoan painter, produced a Chinese painting titled Making Daggers, and won the second prize of the National Exhibition of Peasant Paintings in 1983. Ma Shaoqing’s story The House of Abu, was honored with a special award for the ethnic minority literatures in 1986.


花儿与花儿会FOLK SONGS


“花儿”是流行于甘宁青地区各民族当中的一种民歌,也深受保安族群众的喜爱。“保安令”是保安族花儿的主调,其曲调介于回族花儿和撒拉族花儿之间,既有明亮硬朗的音响,又有柔和抒情的风韵,充分体现了保安族人民豪爽而又多情的气质。2008年,爱唱花儿的保安人马瑞被确定为甘肃省省级非物质文化遗产保安族口头文学及语言传承人。

The Hua’er is a kind of folk song popular in Gansu, Qinghai and Ningxia Provinces. The Baoan people also like to sing these folk songs. A main melody of the Baoan Hua’er is called “Baoan Ling”, which is similar to the folk songs of the Hui and Salar people. The Baoan Hua’er has not only a bright and tough sound, but also a gentle and lyric flavor, which indicates their ethnic characters of being forthright and passionate. In 2008, Ma Rui, a folk song singer, was appointed as the inheritor of the Provincial Intangible Cultural Heritage of the Baoan Oral Literary and Language.

保安族聚居地附近的“大山庄峡花儿会”“尕护林花儿会”“孟达天池花儿会”“炳灵寺花儿会”等,都有保安族群众参加。每年农历五月初五至初八,各族群众自发汇聚在积石山县的盖新坪和大山庄峡,举行一年一度的“花儿会”。

There are several folk song festivals called “Hua’er Hui” in this region, such as in Dashanzhuang Gorge, Gahu Woods, Mengda Tianchi Lake, and Bingling Temple. On each festival, you may find lots of Baoan people. Every year from lunar May 5 to 8 on the Chinese calendar, the masses from various ethnic groups will gather at Gaixinping and Dashanzhuang Gorge of the Jishishan County for the annually folk song festival.


和而不同的宗教文化

Harmony in the Diversity of Religious Culture


保安族的清真寺MOSQUES


保安族信仰伊斯兰教,在村庄内修建有清真寺,由于与回族、东乡族、撒拉族等民族杂居,保安族一般与这些民族的群众共用清真寺。

Since the Baoan people are Muslim, with Mosques built in every village, they may share their mosques with their Muslim neighbors like Hui, Dongxiang and Salar people.


“海乙寺”制度THE HAYY MOSQUE


保安族聚居的大河家一带保持着“海乙寺”(中心清真寺)制度,海乙寺统领下属42坊清真寺,各寺开学阿訇均需通过大寺指派或认可。归属于不同的伊斯兰教派别和门宦的保安族、回族等各族信教群众,在同一座海乙寺里举行主麻日(星期五)聚礼、节日会礼。

Around the Dahejia Town, there is still a religious system that a central Mosque called “Hayy Mosque” will command other 42 attached mosques. The Imams of the attached mosques need to be appointed or approved by the central mosque. Although the Baoan and other Muslims belong to different sects and the Sufi orders of Islam, they hold the Friday prayer and annual festivals in the same central mosque.


教派、门宦SUFI ORDERS


始创于积石山县境内的伊斯兰教派别,主要有苏非学派的崖头门宦和高赵家门宦,保安族群众多数属于这两个教派的信众。此外,也有少量属于其他门宦、教派的信众。

There are two Sufi orders founded in this region: the Aitou Tariq and the Gaozhaojia Tariq. Most of the Baoan people are followers of these two Sufi orders, with a few exceptions.

崖头门宦因其中心在积石山县刘集乡崖头村而得名。保安族聚居的大墩村村民多为该派信众,并建有大墩拱北。

The Aitou Tariq got its name from the Aitou village of Liuji Township, Jishishan County. The Baoan people of Dadun village were mostly followers of this Sufi order. The mausoleum of a Sufi master was built in this village.

高赵家门宦是唯一一个由保安族人创立的中国伊斯兰教派别,因其中心在高赵家村而得名。近年来重修的高赵家门宦拱北,已经成为保安族地区最具有代表性的宗教建筑和宗教活动场所。每年农历三月二十、十月十八前后,这里都要举行盛大的宗教纪念活动。

The Gaozhaojia Tariq, which got its name from its seat of Gaozhaojia village, is the only Islamic sect founded by a Baoan Muslim. The mausoleum of Gaozhaojia Tariq rebuilt in recent years has already become a distinguished religious architecture and sacred site of the region. Every year on March 20 and October 18 of the Chinese lunar calendar, great religious ceremonies will be celebrated here.


宗教节日RELIGIOUS CEREMONY


开斋节、古尔邦节、圣纪等是伊斯兰教传统节日。每逢宗教节日、教派纪念日,崖头拱北和高赵家拱北都会举行盛大的宗教仪式,诵读《古兰经》、赞圣词并聚餐。每逢此时,保安族群众不分男女老少,都来参加,形成壮观的节日氛围。

The traditional Islamic festivals include Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha and Mawlid al-Nabi. Whenever an Islamic festival or religious anniversary comes, grand and magnificent rituals will be held at the Sufi mausoleum of Aitou and Gaozhaojia village. People will recite the Quran, read poems praising the Prophet Mohammad, and have a dinner party at last. On these days, all the Baoan people will come, whether male or female, elder or youth. A spectacular atmosphere will be felt by every one.